History of The MBTI® Test

The MBTI® test (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® Assessment) was founded and created by a mother-daughter team’s contributions and research, Katharine Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers, respectively.  Katharine C. Briggs combined her psychological beliefs with that of the renowned work of Carl G. Jung, resulting in The 16 Psychological Types on which the MBTI® Assessment is based. Katharine Briggs studied Carl Jung’s theories extensively and believed that his work could be used practically. She established her research on Carl Jung’s Theory of Typology, explained in his 1921 book entitled Psychological Types.

In Jung’s theory, he recognized eight patterns of normal behavior.  Briggs and Myers developed Jung’s ideas of these mental functions and included their role in the concept and descriptions of MBTI psychological type.

Carl Jung’s work on Psychological Type was made evident in the 1920s and was later used to create The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator®.  Isabel Myers worked extensively to create this groundbreaking and original work, completing the MBTI Assessment for publication in 1962.  It is said that over two million people are administered the MBTI Assessment worldwide each year. Companies and individuals use it to identify personality traits, improve human performance and identify personality inventories concerning human capital.

What is The MBTI®?

The MBTI is an assessment that identifies one’s 4-letter personality type, with each letter corresponding to a specific personality preference or tendency. The MBTI Assessment comprises 93 questions and typically takes about 20-25 minutes to complete. There are no right or wrong answers on The Myers-Briggs® test. Those who utilize the MBTI test should answer questions honestly about how they are most of the time and without outside interference. The Myers-Briggs test online comprises four dichotomies, or four pairs of opposite personality functions, making up 16 personality types. At its core, the theory behind the MBTI test is based on the fact that the world’s population is made up of these 16 different types of people—hence the 16 MBTI Personality Types.

The four personality type opposites (dichotomies) are:

  • Extraversion-Introversion
  • Intuition-Sensing
  • Thinking-Feeling
  • Judging-Perceiving

The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® Assessment creators believed that the way people prefer to behave varies from person to person by personality type. Each of the letters listed above (E-I, N-S, T-F, J-P) represents a different personality preference.

 Extraverted Types

Extraverted people tend to become energized by being around others, usually in larger groups. They draw their energy from the outer world by communicating verbally and being social. They focus their energy on the outside world as well.  Concerning careers, they tend to prefer to work in larger groups instead of working alone or in one-on-one situations, which usually drains the extravert.

 Introverted Types

Introverted people become energized by taking time to themselves, including doing projects in small groups and participating in one-on-one situations. They tend to prefer to let others do the talking while in larger groups and favor having a few long-term friends rather than more acquaintances.  Introverts focus their energy inward on their inner world of ideas, thoughts, and feelings.  When considering career options, an introverted person wants to think over his or her possibilities alone and will usually only announce his or her decision after personal reflection.

 Intuition Types

Intuitive personality types (N) prefer to take in information by seeing the larger picture of life, focusing on future possibilities.  They are generally imaginative, verbally creative, focus on patterns and meanings in data, follow hunches, and move quickly toward conclusions. They trust inspiration. When considering career options, those with the intuition type are more interested in a job’s potential than the job’s current description.

Sensing Types

Sensing people prefer real and tangible data when absorbing information. They excel at observing and remembering specifics. They like to focus on present realities and trust experience over intuition.  Sensing individuals apply practical facts, by applying the five human senses, touch, sight, hearing, smell and taste as a method to understand ideas and theories.  Relating to work, a Sensing individual focuses on the realities of the job: benefits, location, and salary.

 Thinking Types

Thinking types look at the logical consequences of a specific action when making decisions.  They opt to remove emotion when analyzing situations so that they may weigh the pros and cons of a situation objectively.  They strive to solve problems by critiquing and analyzing situations to identify the issues that need their attention.  They utilize cause-and-effect reasoning and strive to find a standard that will apply in all similar situations.  Career choices are made by logical analysis and they rationally consider all alternatives to be sure that they make the right choice.

 Feeling Types

When making decisions, Feeling types tend to consider what is important to them and to those involved. Opposite of the Thinking type, they take emotion into consideration and identify with everyone involved.  They make decisions based on their values about honoring people.  They are fueled by appreciating and supporting others and look for qualities to praise.  They tend to be compassionate, empathetic, and amiable, always striving to create harmony.   They make career decisions based on what or who is most important to them at the time and take considerable notice of how career decisions affect them and their significant others.

Judging Types

Individuals that prefer Judging like to live in a planned, orderly way and seek to regulate and manage their lives.  They are often seen as scheduled, systematic, and methodical.  They make both short and long term plans and like to have things firmly decided as to avoid last-minute stresses.   They feel energized by getting things done, and their career goal is the end result of a carefully calibrated timeline.

Perceiving Types

People that prefer utilizing their Perceiving process prefer a spontaneous and flexible lifestyle.  They usually aim to experience and understand life instead of trying to control it.  They are much more comfortable with last-minute pressures and like having the option to adapt and change course in an open-ended environment.


The MBTI® and the Four Outlooks

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® SJ Outlook: The Patriarch/Matriarch

The Patriarch/Matriarch Outlook includes the following four personality types:

The Patriarchs/Matriarchs are known to put their trust in authority and believe in the hierarchy system. They have an inherent aptitude for attending to procedures, protocols and rules that help keep things orderly.

The SJ Patriarch/Matriarch has a deep need for group membership and responsibility that, if unfulfilled, may lead them to feel out of place. They also value and work to maintain a sense of community, security and stability in their environment.

When issues arise, the Patriarchs/Matriarchs prefer to turn to collective actions that focus on established standards for resolution. They are known to be talented at logistics and maintaining useful tradition that they re-enforce through looking at past experiences and finding practical ways to apply solutions. Throughout the problem-solving process, the Patriarchs/Matriarchs like to maintain a pre-determined sequence and established structure. With the knowledge of how things have been done in the past, they are able to anticipate where they could potentially go wrong and deal with the issue efficiently.

The practical and methodical nature of those that fall within the Patriarch/Matriarch category gives them the reputation of being the type of people that can always seem to get the right things to the right place, at the right time, to the right people.

The Patriarchs/Matriarchs are known for their unambiguous communication style and general ease of holding conversation. During communication they will respectfully listen to theory and the abstract, but their focus is on the definite and tangible. They are also known to be conventional in their speech and tend to throw in old sayings and commonly understood language into their conversations.

The SJ Patriarch/Matriarch is also known to be the economic type who is always seeking security, keeping the status-quo, and protecting things as-is. They tend to be skeptical of any changes that may potentially jeopardize their security.

The Patriarch/Matriarch type innately feels responsible for the morality of their group or family unit. Their focus is on making sure individuals are responsible for their actions, focusing on what is right and avoiding what is wrong.

Because the Patriarchs/Matriarchs are always “on watch”, they have to always prepare for the worst. This gives them a generally pessimistic outlook on life, preferring to be over prepared rather than caught off guard.

Under circumstances of extended stress (i.e. when failing to reach financial or personal security over a prolonged period of time) they are known to get overwhelmed by strong negatives feelings, sometimes to the point of being rendered helpless. This scenario can be avoided when the Patriarch/Matriarch type maintains high self-esteem, by presenting themselves as trustworthy, dependable and accountable in handling their responsibilities.

Education: Unfortunately, most educational environments do not naturally support the learning style and competencies of the SJ Patriarchs/Matriarchs. Looking at actual scholastic performances rather than trusting standardized testing scores may be the best way to get an accurate view of a Patriarch’s/Matriarch’s intellectual competence.

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® SP Outlook: The Originator

The Originator Outlook includes the following four personality types:

The Originators revolve around their core need for freedom to act without obstruction and to see a marked result from their actions. The Originators have a natural trust in their impulses and their creativity is truly revealed by the variety of solutions they come up with to any given problem. They also have an inherent drive to action that leads to results.

The SP Originators are also known for fostering individuals that are talented at using their tool of choice, be it language, a paintbrush or a hammer. The Originator values aesthetics in both nature and in art. Their work tends to be pragmatic and functional, with a focus on delivering superior technique. The Originator’s energy is also channeled to provide skillful and varied performances.

The Originators are gifted with the ability to tune into immediate sensory information and then vary their actions based on the needs of the specific situation. They are often known as being talented at tactics with their ability to make instant decisions as well as their flexibility to adjust their actions in order to reach a desired outcome. They are generally able to employ any available means to accomplish an end.

In relation to communication, the Originator type focuses their talking on what is going on in the present moment. Discussions of things that cannot be observed or handled are of low importance to the SP Originators. Their language tends to be specific and literal, often avoiding generalizations and metaphors.

The Originator is also known for their practical nature, focusing on what works and not having a primary worry about what is socially appropriate. They are likely to test out operations and then, based on their level of success, either continue on or drop the operation without a second thought if not perceived as successful.

Originators have an extremely optimistic outlook on life. They believe that sometimes “life happens” and you have to be able to take the good with the bad. They are accepting when things go poorly and fully take advantage of the good times that life brings. Even during the bad times they feel that at any point they can get lucky and have things turn around. They also tend to be cynical about human motives in general, being much less gullible and trusting than others.

Education:  The SP Originator typically does not stray from their preference of a random and experiential learning style. They prefer a very hands-on applied learning approach to their schooling that is fast paced and that provides them with freedom to explore. Unfortunately, most educational systems are very deficient in meeting the needs, interests, and learning style of the Originator type. This is even more pronounced than with the Patriarch/Matriarch type.

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® NF Outlook: The Optimist

The Optimist Outlook includes the following four personality types:

The Optimists are individuals that focus on harmonious interactions, with an emphasis on ethics as well as morality. The Optimist has a deep rooted core need for meaning and significance that stems from having a sense of purpose and actively working toward some form of greater good.

The NF Optimist values unity and authenticity and finds it very important to have a unique identity. They have a greater tendency to trust their intuition and impressions first. Afterward, they work to then seek out the logic and data to support their beliefs.

If an Optimist finds themselves working on a global level, then they are likely to be championing a cause. On the other hand, if an Optimist ends up working on an individual level, then they are much more likely to focus on the growth and development of the individual.

The Optimists are also known for being gifted at unifying diverse people as well as helping individuals realize their potential. These abilities lead Optimists to make excellent mediators. They can build bridges between people through their use of empathy and they are also able make clarifications of deeper issues that may be the root of an individual’s more superficial problems. Their focus is on cooperation and progress without sacrifice of goodwill. Expediency is never an appropriate excuse for loss of amicable relationships and the Optimist will go to great lengths to avoid unnecessary conflict. The morale of the group is of great importance to the Idealist.

In communication, the Optimist focuses little on the concrete and instead prefers to focus on the abstract. They prefer to focus on concepts like the heart and soul as well as love and hate, among others. They are also competent at reading between the lines and likely to follow their hunches.

The Optimist believes that happiness comes from selflessly serving others and that it is bad to be self-serving. Because of their belief that there is good in everyone they also tend to be the most gullible and innately trusting of the four Outlooks. To them, selfishness is just another roadblock in their overall goal of reaching self-actualization.

Education: Unlike the Patriarch/Matriarch and Originator, the NF Optimist is much more consistent with the teachings as well as assessment methods in our education system.  Because of their need for empathic relationships, the Optimist can also learn more easily when they can relate to the instructor and group.

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator® NT Outlook: The Pragmatist

The Pragmatist Outlook includes the following four personality types:

The Pragmatist relates to individuals that trust logic above all else. Because of this, they tend to be naturally skeptical in nature. They have a core need for mastery of concepts, competence and knowledge.

They are not simply interested in facts, but instead want to understand the operating principles of the universe and have a tendency to want to learn or develop theories for everything. They are constantly seeking progress and highly value expertise, precision of language, concepts, logical consistency and ideas. Their actions tend toward the practical and applicable, with a focus on technology. A common action cycle might include research, analysis, searching for patterns and developing hypothesis among the Pragmatist individuals.

The NT Pragmatists have a natural gift for strategic analysis. They tend to use it to approach all situations. They also like to think of all possible contingencies for any given situation and then develop multiple plans of action to handle them. Throughout this entire process, the Pragmatist tends to regularly examine the relationship of the means to the overall vision and goal that they have set out for themselves.

In communication, the Pragmatists tend to focus on conceptual and abstract ideas. They prefer to avoid the redundant and trivial and dislike wasting words when speaking. They also have an applicative outlook on life, focusing on how useful a tool or tactic is in reaching their intended end before assessing its social implication.

The NT Pragmatist is also associated with a life-long preoccupation with technology and this can be the foundation for a prolonged career focus. Many will end up focusing either on machines or organisms (the biological machine).

The Pragmatist individuals look at the world around themselves from a serviceable perspective. Their greatest annoyance is the loss of efficiency, in any aspect of their lives. In everything that they do, they work on getting the greatest result with the least amount of effort. They do not let traditions or customs get in the way of finding new and more efficient ways of doing things.

Education: Our current educational system tailors to the Pragmatist even more than it does to the Optimist. Our educational system tends to support conceptual learning styles, where the Pragmatists want to know the underlying principles that generate the facts in addition to the details and facts themselves.

The MBTI® Test and the Four Attitudes

mbti - four attitudes IJ Attitude: The Decisive Introvert

The Decisive Introvert Attitude includes the following four personality types:

Decisive Introverts are introspective and hard to convince or change based on their persevering nature with compelling data being necessary in order to override a decision or foregone conclusion that the Decisive Introvert has made.

The reason that those with the IJ attitude can appear inflexible and resistant to change has to do with their extraverted auxiliary judging function preference (either Thinking or Feeling). This preference leads the Decisive Introvert to state their conclusions, rather than providing the data for their judgment, which can come off as extra adamant.

However, it is important to note that the Decisive Introvert has a dominant perceiving function (either Sensing or Intuition) that will lead them to renounce their conclusion if they are provided with information that contradicts their initial judgment.

 IP Attitude: The Adaptable Introvert

The Adaptable Introvert Attitude includes the following four personality types:

Adaptable Introverts are introspective and while they tend to be adaptable in little things; they are firm on important issues. The firm stance on important issues is attributed to their judging function (Thinking or Feeling) which is central to their personality.

The Adaptable Introvert’s extraverted auxiliary perceiving function is responsible for the flexibility on small matters, but it is important to note that it can be overridden by their judging function (Feeling or Thinking). In these cases the Adaptable Introvert can come off as difficult and resistant to change.

 EP Attitude: The Adaptable Extravert

The Adaptable Extravert Attitude includes the following four personality types:

Adaptable Extraverts are full of energy, outgoing and social. The main reasoning behind their eagerness to engage with the outside world can be attributed to their dominant extraverted perceiving function. They also have an easier time trusting the outside world than other attitude types.

The Adaptable Extravert tends to approach life from a generally optimistic perspective and is known to be comfortable with embracing new opportunities. When Adaptable Extraverts run into obstacles, they tend to see it as a temporary setback and they are more likely to approach them like a challenge that they are happy to face.

EJ Attitude: The Decisive Extravert

The Decisive Extravert Attitude includes the following four personality types:

Decisive Extraverts are often seen as natural born leaders. They have a sense of confidence about them and are known to be quick and decisive in their actions. Their dominant judging function (Thinking or Feeling) has a big influence on their decision making process and once they have come to a conclusion it can be difficult for them to change their minds.

Decisive Extraverts are less likely to be affected by new information, which is based on their auxiliary perceiving function (Sensing or Intuition). Instead, the Decisive Extravert is more likely to be influenced if the consequences of their actions have a negative effect. In their natural roles they are able to utilize their dominant judging function (Thinking or Feeling) in order to reach decisions and get things executed.

The MBTI® Test and the Four Mental Functions

MBTI ST Mental Function: The Practical and Matter-of-Fact Types

The Practical and Matter-of-Fact Mental Function includes the following four personality types:

Those with the ST Mental Function primarily rely on their Sensing preference when it comes to the purpose of perception and turn to their Thinking preference for judgment. The main focus of those with the ST Mental Function is centered on facts that they can verify through measuring, counting, touching, weighing, hearing and sensing.

Once those with the ST Mental Function have the data that they need, they proceed with objective analysis that is fueled by their Thinking preference.  This combination of preferences gives them the reputation for being practical and matter-of-fact.

As can be seen in the MBTI Career Report, individuals with the ST Mental function are attracted to job fields that require non-personal analysis of concrete facts and data such as business, law, economics, and accounting.

MBTI SF Mental Function: The Sympathetic and Friendly Types

The Sympathetic and Friendly Mental Function includes the following four personality types:

Those with the SF Mental Function primarily turn to their Sensing preference for the purpose of perception. When it comes to the purpose of judgment they rely on their Feeling preference. Similar to those with the ST Mental Function, they gather facts directly through their main senses, but they approach their decision making process differently. For their decision making they tend to be more subjective, relying on their personal values.

Those with the SF Mental function generally come across as friendly and sympathetic. These individuals tend to gravitate toward people-centric sales positions, teaching, and various health-care related fields.

MBTI NF Mental Function: The Enthusiastic and Insightful Types

The Enthusiastic and Insightful Mental Function includes the following four personality types:

Those with the NF Mental Function primarily turn to their Intuition preference for their perceiving functions. When it comes to making decisions the NF Mental Function type relies on their Feeling preference.

Those with the NF Mental Function tend to be sympathetic, similar to the SF Mental Function type, but their Intuition preference leads them to have interests in possibilities rather than concrete situations. They also tend to be insightful, warm, and committed.  These individuals are more likely to be drawn to new projects and the unknown. They are more likely to see patterns, symbolic meanings, and theoretical relationships and then apply this information and insight to human relationships based on their values related to their Feeling preference.

Individuals with the NF Mental Function tend to be drawn to fields such as teaching, counseling, writing, and research, based on their strong tendencies to have a gift for either the written or spoken word.

MBTI NT Mental Function: The Logical and Ingenious Types

The Logical and Ingenious Mental Function includes the following four personality types:

Those with the NT Mental Function primarily turn to their Intuition preference when dealing with their perceiving function. Unlike the NF mental function, they prefer the objectivity related to their Thinking preference when dealing with judgment.

Similar to those with the NF Mental Function, the Logical and Ingenious Types focus on possibilities and abstract patterns, but they differ in that they judge from a nonpersonal and objective perspective. They are attracted to pursuing possibilities that minimize human issues and instead have a technical and scientific focus.

Individuals with the NT mental function are typically drawn to problem solving positions in their chosen field of focus. Generally these fields have mathematics or scientific research based foundations. In fact, most innovative fields in the technical and administrative world have strong Logical and Ingenious type representation.

The MBTI® Test and the Four Perceptions and Orientations to the Outside World

SJ Types: The Realistic Decision Makers

The Realistic Decision Maker Perception and Orientation to the Outside World includes the following four personality types:

Individuals that are Realistic Decision Makers introvert their Sensing function. In other words, these individuals turn their energy inward so that they can remember external events, as well as their internal thoughts, memories and feelings. The process involves absorbing new data and integrating it into their internal information bank ready for retrieval when necessary.

The effect of the introverting Sensing of a Realistic Decision Maker can be seen in the way that we describe SJ types. They are seen as individuals that are organized and dependable. They seek order in their environment and many may see them as conservative. The MBTI SJ type also approaches problem solving by relying on past experiences. Because the SJ type internalizes all their factual and experiential data, the average person doesn’t see the depth of analysis that goes into the SJ type’s decision making process. When asked to provide information backing up their decisions, the SJ type can provide an unexpected and sometimes overwhelming amount of facts.

 SP Types: The Adaptable Realists

The Adaptable Realist Perception and Orientation to the Outside World includes the following four personality types:

Individuals that are Adaptable Realists extravert their Sensing function. Meaning, these individuals direct their energy outwardly and are known to notice sensory information (sounds, sights, smells, touch and human reactions) with great accuracy and in great detail. Adaptable Realists are known for wanting to experience as much as possible through their senses and do so very vividly.

The effect of the extraverting Sensing function of an Adaptable Realist can be seen in the way that we describe the SP type. The MBTI SP types look to new experiences in the present moment and are known to be curious about the world around them. Adaptable Realists are flexible when situations arise and are adept at observing the immediate situation. Individuals with the SP type also tend to be attracted to work environments that focus on attending to details and facts in their immediate environment. On the other hand, the SP type is comparatively much less interested in any long-range aspects or implications of what they do in a working environment. Adaptable Realists are stimulus-seekers and are at their best when they can experience a large amount of external stimulation.

 NP Types: The Adaptable Innovators

The Adaptable Innovator Perception and Orientation to the Outside World includes the following four personality types:

Individuals that are Adaptable Innovators extravert their Intuition function. This process includes looking toward the outside world for anything that is new. This includes new people, new ideas, or new possibilities. The aim of this process is to change and reshape the NP type’s environment. The Adaptable Innovator’s goal is to fully experience and explore the world and all its potential through new challenges.

The effect of the extraverted Sensing function of an Adaptable Innovator can be observed in how NP types are described. Adaptable Innovators are constantly seeking new challenges of the unknown and are able to adjust to new opportunities and possibilities as they arise. They love their creative freedom and are independent and unconventional in their thought and decision making process. They like to explore new solutions for not only new problems, but also old problems that they feel can be improved upon. It is also not uncommon to see MBTI NP types to proceed head-first into challenges that others may see as very difficult or impossible.

 NJ Types: The Visionary Decision Makers

The Visionary Decision Maker Perception and Orientation to the Outside World includes the following four personality types:

Individuals that are Visionary Decision makers introvert their Intuition function. In other words, they focus their energies on internal connections and imagines in order to develop new patterns and ways of processing information. Through finding meaning and patterns in the world the MBTI NJ type spends their energy working on changing and reshaping their environment so that it matches their inner vision. The Visionary Decision Maker is constantly working on bettering their understanding of the world through developing inner intuitive patterns.

You can see how the process of introverting Intuition manifests itself in the real world by the way that MBTI NJ types are generally described. Visionary Decision Makers are very determined and persistent in their pursuit of accomplishing the goals of their inner vision. They have the potential to be charismatic leaders and their qualities tend to attract dedicated followers to their cause. They have a natural way of presenting their inner vision in an inspirational and convincing way by presenting it in terms of either long-range impact on important values or long-range logical consequences, depending on the target audience.

TJ Types: The Logical Decision Makers

The Logical Decision Maker Judgment and Orientation to the Outside World includes the following four personality types:

Individuals that are Logical Decision Makers extravert their Thinking function. This process includes expressing thoughts and judgments with clarity and candor in order to bring stability to their external environment. In order to be able to anticipate consequences quickly and act upon them promptly, the Logical Decision Maker focuses on critiquing systems, ideas, and procedures. The overall goal of the MBTI TJ type is to create logical order in the external world by way of making the outside world rational.

We can see the extraverting Thinking function in action by examining how the MBTI TJ type is described. Logical Decision Makers are often analytical, tough-minded, executive, and instrumental leaders. The MBTI TJ type naturally transition into leadership roles in any of the settings they may step into. They are able to effectively communicate their confidence in the practicality and viability of focusing on logical conclusions. They also have a very direct and to the point communication style, which can make them come off as hypercritical or too quick to act.

Logical Decision Makers have a confident aura about them and are seen as in control with the ability to quickly and efficiently implement decisions. They are also quite capable of imposing logical organizational structures to support these goals.

TP Types: The Adaptable Thinkers

The Adaptable Thinker Judgment and Orientation to the Outside World includes the following four personality types:

Individuals that are Adaptable Thinkers introvert their Thinking function. In other words, Adaptable Thinkers seek to order their internal thoughts through developing a logical system for comprehension. The MBTI TP type can critique reality and identify inconsistencies that other types may overlook through the use of reflective observation. A major goal of the Adaptable Thinker is to create logical order. This is done by developing rational principles that help them understand the world.

We can observe the process of introverting the Thinking function by looking at how we describe Adaptable Thinkers. The MBTI TP type is curious, skeptical, and objective. This is especially true with possibilities and events that the TP types can fit into consistent and orderly frameworks.  Adaptable Thinkers are also known for being excellent trouble-shooters because of their ability to focus in on the essence of problems and then finding logical solutions. When looking for solutions to problems they are unlikely to arbitrarily rule out any possibilities, even if they may seem unlikely to others. Their ability to consider such a broad range of facts and ideas into their decision making process leads them to come to the most accurate conclusion possible.

Other individuals may have trouble following the Adaptive Thinkers logic when they are deeply involved with a project. This can be attributed to the MBTI TP types introverted Thinking. Their internal logic may seem self apparent and they may assume, incorrectly, that it is clear to everyone else as well.

FP Types: The Gentle Types

The Gentle Type Judgment and Orientation to the Outside World includes the following four personality types:

Individuals that are of the Gentle Type introvert their Feeling function. These individuals are known to seek complex and meaningful inner lives. They accomplish this through being attuned to possible contradictions that can occur between an individual’s inner values and their outer life. The MBTI FP type works diligently to clarify and maintain the consistency of their own actions and values. Their main goal is to identify their core values and then to work on establishing a compatible external life. Unfortunately, they rarely are able to truly express the intensity of their values to others as the MBTI FP type tends to internalize these values.

You can gain extended clarity on the process of introverting the Feeling function by looking at the way that the Gentle Types are described. MBTI FP types are known to be primarily concerned with the human aspect of problems and are adaptable in their pursuit of harmony. The actions of the Gentle Types lead others to like and trust them more readily. The FP type is open to the ideas and contributions of others, which they receive plentifully as they are gifted at enlisting support.

FJ Types: The Benevolent Administrators

The Benevolent Administrator Judgment and Orientation to the Outside World includes the following four personality types:

Benevolent Administrators extravert their Feeling function. They are skilled at being strongly attuned to people’s desires and expectations. The FJ types use this ability to seek harmonious relationships with people in their environment. This end is realized by their focus on structuring and organizing the environment to meet people’s needs. When extraverting their Feeling function their goal is to create cooperation in an external environment and to help others get what they need and want. Sometimes a Benevolent Administrator can have their extraverting Feeling effort misjudged as excessive emotionality. The MBTI FJ Type expresses strong values with the goal of making sure that those become actualized in the world.

We can observe the process of extraverting the Feeling function in the way that the FJ types are described. Benevolent Administrators are often expressive leaders who are known to be very observant of people as well as their needs. The MBTI FJ Types spend a lot of their energy working on making people happy and bringing an overall feeling of harmony to relationships. They can sometimes falsely be judged as being overly accommodating or even codependent in some cases. Sometimes they may over commit to the well being of others, leadings to excessive stress as they attempt to fulfill all important obligations without letting anyone down.

The MBTI FJ type tends to be loyal to those that share the same values and goals as they do. On the other hand, they can be harsh on those that deviate from their values or goals. It is also important to the Benevolent Administrator to include others and be included themselves. When this need is not met they tend to experience a feeling of failure along with hurt feelings.

The MBTI® Test and the Four Orientations of Energy & Perceptions

 IS Types: The Thoughtful Realists

The Thoughtful Realist Orientation of Energy and Perception includes the following four personality types:

Thoughtful Realists are Introverts that also have a Sensing preference. They prefer to deal with what is real and factual and like to test ideas to see whether they are indeed supported by facts.

The IS type is known to get irritated and frustrated when they feel rushed in a task that they are attempting to focus on. They prefer to deal with situations in a careful and unhurried manner.

The Thoughtful Realist generally avoids leadership positions and prefers to stay in the background when dealing with projects.  When forced into leadership positions, they are much more likely to feel uncomfortable and out of place. It can also lead to diminished job satisfaction even if the rest of their work environment is satisfactory. Because of the IS Types background role, their accomplishments are often times taken for granted or wholly overlooked. The quiet and persistent work style of the Thoughtful Realist, in the workplace as well as at home, can unfortunately further draw attention away from their oftentimes significant contributions. The fast paced and ever-changing work environments of today also contribute to the MBTI IS Types inability to always function in their most comfortable and natural way.

IN Types: The Thoughtful Innovators

The Thoughtful Innovator Orientation of Energy and Perception includes the following four personality types:

Thoughtful Innovators are Introverts that also have an Intuition preference. They are interested in theories and ideas for the sake of knowledge based on their introspective and scholarly nature. The MBTI IN Types prefer the complexity of theory over the pragmatism of accomplishments in the real world. This gives them the reputation of being the least practical of the MBTI personality types.

Thoughtful Innovators naturally seek out the company of other Thoughtful Innovators. They do this in order to be in the company of others who will affirm their philosophical and intellectual interests. This is especially important as other types tend to have a much stronger preference for the practical world. Non IN Types also have a tendency to judge MBTI IN Types as being too serious and for missing out on many of the aspects of life that are associated with a practical outlook. Thoughtful Innovators are very serious academically and unfortunately the modern workplace does not provide many career fields where individuals can spend the majority of their time on intellectual pursuits. This leads MBTI IN Types to be more likely to report dissatisfaction in their work life.

ES Types: The Action-Oriented Realists

The Action-Oriented Realist Orientation of Energy and Perception includes the following four personality types:

Action-Oriented Realists are Extraverts that also have a Sensing preference.  They have the reputation of being the most practical of all the types. This preference permeates their work, school and personal lives. Their preferred learning environment includes a focus on material that has useful direct applications in the real world. The Action-Oriented Realist has a very utilitarian perspective of the world, finding great enjoyment from the material world. They have little interest in dealing with how things could be or focusing their energies discussing theories and unproven ideas.

The ES Type spends a lot of time focusing on experiencing as much of the world as possible. The Action-Oriented Realist comes across as ever confident when dealing with the outside world. They are likely to make an extended effort when they want to have a specific experience or if they want to visit a specific place that they find interesting.

EN Types: The Action-Oriented Innovators

The Action-Oriented Innovator Orientation of Energy and Perception includes the following four personality types:

Action-Oriented Innovators are Extraverts that also have an Intuition preference. Instead of having interests in one or two focused areas, the EN Type has a variety of interests. Across their interests they look for new patterns and relationships that they can decipher. When the Action-Oriented Innovator sees a new possibility they take it as a challenge to make something happen. More than other types they get the ball rolling when it comes to making changes in the world that are outside of the norm.

Action-Oriented Innovators are future oriented when it comes to their pursuits. Their future focused vision encompasses their vision for people, structures, as well as institutions.  The extraverted nature of the Action-Oriented Innovators enables them to be innately comfortable interacting with the outside world.

 ET Types: The Action-Oriented Thinker

The Action-Oriented Thinker Orientation of Energy and Judgment includes the following four personality types:

Action-Oriented Thinkers are Extraverts that also have the Thinking preference. They approach life from an objective perspective and they expect a similar approach from others. They like to make things happen in a very logical and analytical way. Others see them as very energetic and active. Competence and being effective is of top priority to the MBTI ET type.

When others around the MBTI ET type begin to doubt themselves, show low self-confidence or hesitate, the Action-Oriented Thinker may show annoyance and lose their patience with the situation. Those with the Feeling preference may see the ET Type as extensively harsh and unsympathetic.

 EF Types: The Action-Oriented Cooperators

The Action-Oriented Cooperator Orientation of Energy and Judgment includes the following four personality types:

Action-Oriented Cooperators are Extraverts that also have the Feeling preference. One of the primary motivators for their actions is enjoying doing things for people’s welfare and enjoyment. Others see them as sympathetic, extremely friendly, and generally sociable. Making social connections, having lots of friends, and being generally liked are all important things to the Action-Oriented Cooperator. The MBTI EF Types also tend to be very sensitive to the emotional environment around them. Positive energy and harmony fuels them. On the other hand, they have a very hard time functioning optimally in an environment that frequently is known for conflict and poor interpersonal cooperation. It is normal for the Action-Oriented Cooperator to act as a natural mediator who tries to keep the peace. The very same peace and harmony that is so very important to their well being and optimal social operation.

 IF Types: The Reflective Harmonizers

The Reflective Harmonizer Orientation of Energy and Judgment includes the following four personality types:

Reflective Harmonizers are Introverts that also have the Feeling preference. They have a deep connection with people as well as how they feel. They are quite often quiet, but also generally very caring in nature. They hold dear deeply established values that form the foundation of their decision making process. Others may see the MBTI IF Types as overly emotional, mainly because they tend to feel things more intensely than other types. They can come off as extremely serious when it comes to their values and their sensitivity extends to not only their own emotional state, but also to the emotional state of others. Unlike the Action-Oriented Cooperators, they are much less likely to step in and try to fix problematic situations, instead they are more likely to detach from the situation in order to avoid further stress.

IT Types: The Reflective Reasoners

The Reflective Reasoner Orientation of Energy and Judgment includes the following four personality types:

Reflective Reasoners are Introverts that also have the Thinking preference. Of all the types they are the slowest to develop social skills. Many see them as the quiet ones that spend their time contemplating the world. They are unlikely to be very wordy in their conversations and often dislike small talk. Social interactions in general can be very stressful to the Reflective Reasoner. Sometimes they can even seem socially awkward. When they do socialize they can come off as overly formal, sometimes to the extent of seeming unfriendly. The MBTI IT Types are natural critics and their introverted approach to analysis can send mixed signals to those around them. Their energy is spent on internal reflection, leaving their body language to communicate an often erroneous and overly critical message when dealing with interpersonal communication.

The Validity of The MBTI® Test Instrument

The MBTI test has been found by numerous studies to be a valid tool when used for its intended purpose.  It has been optimized to avoid gender bias and tested cross-culturally as to be available to a wide variety of individuals.  The Myers Briggs test online has also been shown to positively correlate with other established instrument such as the FIRO-B® Test, FIRO Business® Test , Strong Interest Inventory® Test, and Thomas-Kilmann Conflict Mode Instrument (TKI Test). For an in-depth look at The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Reliability and Validity, please visit our Myers-Briggs Reliability and Validity Page.

In order to further validate The MBTI assessment, exploratory factor analysis studies have been completed.  Some of the focused studies have been Thompson and Borrello (1986) and Harvey, Murry, and Stamoulis (1995).

Why The MBTI® Test Instrument?

The MBTI test provides the user with an in-depth analysis of their four-letter Myers-Briggs Type Indicator personality type.  The pool of the 16 different personality types helps take into account the various individuals that we observe in our daily lives.  It is an optimal starting point whether you are pursuing collegiate, career or personal exploration.

How is The MBTI® Test Instrument Used?

Examples of how the MBTI test is used include—but are not limited to—how individuals process information, make decisions, present themselves to the external world, and focus their energy.  MBTI test results can be used to optimize users’ methods of communicating, finding appropriate schooling pathways, exploring career options, resolving conflict, working in teams, learning leadership, and managing development.  Please note the MBTI assessment does not assess abilities in any specific personal, school, or work field.

Free Versus Paid Assessments

There are many free personality and interest inventory tests and assessments located around the Internet.  Though one must know that these tests attempt to mimic The MBTI test at no or sometimes a low cost to you, they are neither valid nor proven to assess your personality, nor are they what you are searching for. The MBTI assessment has been rewritten for validity and cross-culturally tested for over 40 years and cannot be replaced by replicas that attempt to mimic its legitimacy. Being that The MBTI® is quite affordable, there really is no reason to look elsewhere and not be administered the genuine MBTI® line of assessments.

Why Choose Career Assessment Site?

  • Receive online access to tests at the lowest prices on the web.
  • Complimentary email support for any assessment-based questions.
  • At Career Assessment Site, we provide an assessment interpretation session with a licensed/certified professional by telephone, Zoom Audio, or call-in telephone conferencing for domestic customers and Zoom Audio for international customers. This session is included with every purchase. The MBTI Complete, TKI, and iStartStrong are non-restricted Assessments and do not include nor require a consultation appointment. All other assessments Careerassessmentsite.com provides are psychologically restricted assessments that require this interpretation session as it is a very important part of your experience. For details, please check our FAQ page.

White Glove Customer Service

Here at Career Assessment Site, whether you are a career counselor, a corporate CEO, a college student seeking a career change, or a personality assessment, we provide our unique “white glove” customer service to every customer. We provide complimentary email and telephone support while taking great care in managing your account, whether you have taken a single test, multiple tests, or multiple clients. We track your orders, keeping an organized database of your and/or your clients’ assessments and consultation progress, all of which are electronically filed in a secure, confidential server, which is backed up to a safe electronic environment in case of computer or server failure. Your records will be kept and can be accessed for several years after your purchase as a courtesy from Career Assessment Site with a free reprint service of your assessment(s) at any time if you misplace or lose your or your client’s original report(s) as another free-of-charge courtesy.


mbti questions

Do Employers Look at Myers-Briggs Test Results?

Your employer is not likely to look at your MBTI results when it comes to securing your position; however, it can be a useful tool to help your employer better understand you and the ways that you communicate. Understanding the way you communicate and the way that your mind works can help you have a better relationship with your employer. You may also find that certain personality types are better suited for certain jobs. Your employer is going to see the same thing. So, while they are not likely to make a selection of a candidate based on their MBTI type, it can be valuable information for both you and your employer to have.

Do Psychologists Use The Myers-Briggs Test?

Psychologists have a host of diagnostic tools that they can draw from when they are studying people or working with their clients. Because of this, some of them may choose to use the MBTI while others may stick towards other tools. Even though that is the case, your MBTI type is still something that may be of interest in a lot of psychological spaces. Whether or not it is used by a specific psychologist is at their discretion but this is still an interesting tool to help understand the mind and the way that it works. This is especially true when it comes to studying the innate personality rather than the one that is affected by the way someone was raised or their experiences. The MBTI Type is something that provides a lot of information and is unaffected by the lens through which we have our experiences.

Does Personality Affect Career Choice?

Yes! It only makes sense that you would choose a career that aligns with your personality type but even the existing research backs this up. Personality type can help you to determine what career is the best for you and it can also help you to understand why a job isn’t a good fit for you if you should run into that sort of problem. Research has also shown that people who are in careers that align with their personality type are more productive, happier, and make more money. Even if the tasks you do in your job are related to your personality type, you’re likely to enjoy your job more.

Does Personality Affect Career Performance?

Research has shown that personality affects all aspects of your job performance. This is because your personality is going to affect the way that you communicate on the job with your teammates and your superiors, the way that you approach and handle tasks, and react to work-related stress. As you read before, those who are in careers that align with their personality type are going to be more productive. Picking a career that aligns with your personality type is going to help you do better at work and be happier with your professional life.

Can You Be Two Myers-Briggs Types?

No, you’re only going to be one MBTI Type. There may be two types that seem like you could fit into either category and you may find that the result you get between these two is dependent on the test you’re taking. While it is possible to be closely aligned to more than one personality type, there is always going to be just one that suits you better than any of the others. To make sure that you’re getting the best result for your personality, you should be sure to take a high-quality test and be as honest as possible.

Are You Born With Your Myers-Briggs Type?

Most people would say yes. Your MBTI Type is dependent on your innate personality. Your personality does form over the course of your lifetime but the MBTI examines core traits that are considered to be the way your personality is at its core. That is why most people would say that this test examines your nature whereas the Enneagram examines your personality as the world has shaped you or the way you were nurtured. It is said that the way you express your personality or MBTI Type, becomes more prominent as you age but that it is innate to you from the start.

Can You Change MBTI Types?

Not really. As you read in the last question, it is widely considered to be true that your MBTI Type relates to your personality at your very core. These core traits are considered to be innate to you, so they do not really change over time. You may find that you’re able to be more thorough in taking your test if you take it a second time and that may affect your outcome. It is also true that as you age and have a better understanding of the world and the way that you exist in it, you may find your results change. Even when this is the case, your core personality has always been your core personality.

Why Is The Myers-Briggs Test So Popular?

Even after all these years, determining your MBTI Type is still very popular for several reasons. One of the main reasons is that people have an inherent drive to understand themselves and this is one of the most widely used tools to do so. Another thing that helps perpetuate its popularity and contribute to its longevity is that the MBTI is based on concrete principles in psychology and science, which lends to its credibility. Another reason why the MBTI is so popular is that it has been around so long that most people have heard of it at least once, making it easy to put your personality in context without having to explain yourself as deeply.

Is The MBTI Reliable?

Yes! The only thing that can be unreliable about the test is our own contributions as we are taking it. In order to get the most out of the test, it is so important that you are completely honest when you are taking it and you think critically but answer with what feels best for you. It is also very crucial to make sure that you’re taking a reputable test so that you can get the most accurate and reliable results.

Is Our MBTI Nature or Nurture?

As with any personality test, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator is going to be a complex set of questions that will reflect our innate qualities as well as the way that we choose to express ourselves based on the lens through which we see the world. The general consensus is that the MBTI focuses more on our inherent personality, so nature. It isn’t productive to think of your MBTI as genetic; however, it is something that many feel that we are born with and just learn to more thoroughly express as our lives progress and our personalities start to take shape.

Is The MBTI Pseudoscience?

A lot of people say that the MBTI is pseudoscience. Regardless of what you think about the test, it is important to remember that a lot of the things that this test looks at is rooted in actual science and can provide you and those around you (such as a potential employer or partner) with a lot of valuable information about you as a person. In order to make sure that you are getting the most accurate results that are going to be useful to you is by taking a reputable test and being completely honest while taking your test.


MBTI Manual (Isabel Briggs Myers, 1998, CPP Inc.)

Introduction to Type (Isabel Briggs Myers, 1998, CPP Inc.)

Introduction to Type and Careers (Allen L. Hammer, 2007, CPP Inc.)